Over stores are arranged along three levels of pedestrian walkways on the sides of the rectangle, with a fourth level on the East side.
Antiquity[ edit ] Remains of marketplace and retail shops at Trajan's Forum in Rome In antiquity, marketplaces and fairs were established to facilitate the exchange of goods and services.
People would shop for goods at a regular market in nearby towns. However, the transient nature of stalls and stall-holders meant the consumers needed to make careful inspection of goods prior to purchase.
In ancient Greecethe agora served as a marketplace where merchants kept stalls or shops to sell their goods. Rome had two forums; the Forum Romanum and Trajan's Forum. Trajan's Market at Trajan's forum, built around CE, was a vast expanse, comprising multiple buildings with tabernae that served as retail shops, situated on four levels.
Those who lived on the great estates were sufficiently attractive for merchants to call directly at their farm-gates, obviating their need to attend local markets.
One such list was discovered near Hadrian's wall dated back to 75— CE and written for a soldier. Instead, they provided for their basic needs through subsistence farming practices and a system of localised personal exchanges.
For the main part, shopping was seen as a chore rather than a pleasure. Instead customers walked into the tradesman's workshops where they discussed purchasing options directly with tradesmen.
Specialist retailers such as mercers and haberdashers were known to exist in London, while grocers sold "miscellaneous small wares as well as spices and medicines. As late as the 16th century, London's shops were described as little more than "rude booths.
Interiors were dark and shoppers had relatively few opportunities to inspect the merchandise prior to consumption.
Glazed windows in retail environments, were virtually unknown during the medieval period. Goods were rarely out on display; instead retailers kept the merchandise at the rear of the store and would only bring out items on request.
The service counter was virtually unknown and instead, many stores had openings onto the street from which they served customers. Retailers were no better than hucksters, because they simply resold goods, by buying cheaper and selling dearer, without adding value of national accounts.
Added to this were concerns about the self-interest of retailers and some of their more unethical practices. Attitudes to spending on luxury goods also attracted criticism, since it involved importing goods which did little to stimulate national accounts, and interfered with the growth of worthy local manufacturers.
As standards of living improved in the 17th century, consumers from a broad range of social backgrounds began to purchase goods that were in excess of basic necessities. An emergent middle class or bourgeosie stimulated demand for luxury goods and began to purchase a wider range of luxury goods and imported goods, including: Indian cotton and calico; silk, tea and porcelain from China, spices from India and South-East Asia and tobacco, sugar, rum and coffee from the New World.
Shops started to become important as places for Londoners to meet and socialise and became popular destinations alongside the theatre. Restoration London also saw the growth of luxury buildings as advertisements for social position with speculative architects like Nicholas Barbon and Lionel Cranfield.
Bernard Mandeville 's work The Fable of the Beeswhich justified conspicuous consumption.
Much pamphleteering of the time was devoted to justifying conspicuous consumption and private vice for luxury goods for the greater public good. This then scandalous line of thought caused great controversy with the publication of Bernard Mandeville 's influential work Fable of the Bees inin which he argued that a country's prosperity ultimately lay in the self-interest of the consumer.
Important shifts included the marketing of goods for individuals as opposed to items for the household, and the new status of goods as status symbolsrelated to changes in fashion and desired for aesthetic appeal, as opposed to just their utility. The pottery inventor and entrepreneurJosiah Wedgewoodpioneered the use of marketing techniques to influence and manipulate the direction of the prevailing tastes.The Home of the 4 Hour Investor Grade Business Plan.
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