Problem identification in mutual funds

The dictionary definitions miss a vital aspect. The origin of the term implies equality or 'one-ness', but identities are no longer rationed to one per physiological specimen.

Problem identification in mutual funds

Background[ edit ] Y2K is a numeronym and was the common abbreviation for the year software problem. The abbreviation combines the letter Y for "year", and k for the SI unit prefix kilo meaning ; hence, 2K signifies It was also named the "Millennium Bug" because it was associated with the popular rather than literal roll-over of the millenniumeven though most of the problems could have occurred at the end of any ordinary century.

There were other contenders. Y2K just came off my fingertips. Since programs could simply prefix "19" to the year of a date, most programs internally used, or stored on disc or tape, data files where the date format was six digits, in the form MMDDYY, MM as two digits for the month, DD as two digits for the day, and YY as two digits for the year.

As space on disc and tape was also expensive, this also saved money by reducing the size of stored data files and data bases. Some such programs could not distinguish between the year and the year Other programs tried to represent the year as This could cause a complete failure and cause date comparisons to produce incorrect results.

Some embedded systemsmaking use of similar date logic, were expected to fail and cause utilities and other crucial infrastructure to fail. Some warnings of what would happen if nothing was done were particularly dire: While some commentators and experts argued that the coverage of the problem largely amounted to scaremongering[10] it was only the safe passing of the main "event horizon" itself, 1 Januarythat fully quelled public fears.

Some experts who argued that scaremongering was occurring, such as Ross AndersonProfessor of Security Engineering at the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratoryhave since claimed that despite sending out hundreds of press releases about research results suggesting that the problem was not likely to be as big a problem as some had suggested, they were largely ignored by the media.

The need for bit conservation[ edit ] "I'm one of the culprits who created this problem. I used to write those programs back in the s and s, and was proud of the fact that I was able to squeeze a few elements of space out of my program by not having to put a 19 before the year.

Back then, it was very important. We used to spend a lot of time running through various mathematical exercises before we started to write our programs so that they could be very clearly delimited with respect to space and the use of capacity.

It never entered our minds that those programs would have lasted for more than a few years. As a consequence, they are very poorly documented. If I were to go back and look at some of the programs I wrote 30 years ago, I would have one terribly difficult time working my way through step-by-step.

Many tricks were used to squeeze needed data into fixed-field character records. Saving two digits for every date field was significant in this effort. In the s, computer memory and mass storage were scarce and expensive. Early core memory cost one dollar per bit. Programs often mimicked card processing techniques.

Over time the punched cards were converted to magnetic tape and then disc files, but the structure of the data usually changed very little. Data was still input using punched cards until the mids.

Problem identification in mutual funds

Machine architectures, programming languages and application designs were evolving rapidly. Neither managers nor programmers of that time expected their programs to remain in use for many decades.

The realisation that databases were a new type of program with different characteristics had not yet come. There were exceptions, of course.

The first person known to publicly address this issue was Bob Bemerwho had noticed it in as a result of work on genealogical software.

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He spent the next twenty years trying to make programmers, IBMthe government of the United States and the ISO aware of the problem, with little result. InErik Naggum was instrumental in ensuring that internet mail used four digit representations of years by including a strong recommendation to this effect in the internet host requirements document RFC Resulting bugs from date programming[ edit ] Webpage screenshots showing the JavaScript.

Rollover of such systems is still a problem but can happen at varying dates and can fail in various ways. The Microsoft Excel spreadsheet program had a very elementary Y2K problem:§ Section § Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR MUTUAL FUNDS Programs § Customer identification programs for .

Problem identification in mutual funds

Note to reader: This is site is no longer being, um, actively managed. Therefore, while the general information is still valid, specific reference information like the table in Low-MER No-Load Index Funds Available in Canada is now out-of-date.

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What is an ISIN ISIN, or International Securities Identification Number, is a 12 digit code that’s sole purpose is to uniquely identify a security, such as a stock or a bond. The. The Year problem, also known as the Y2K problem, the Millennium bug, the Y2K bug, or Y2K, is a class of computer bugs related to the formatting and storage of calendar data for dates beginning in the year Problems were anticipated, and arose, because many programs represented four-digit years with only the final two digits — making the year indistinguishable from But for non-experts, mutual funds is a better alternative.

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