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In the South African context, English has been both a highly influential language, and a language influenced, in different ways and to different degrees, by processes of adaptation within the country's various communities. Of this figure it would seem that at least one in three English speakers come from ethnic groups other than the white one in proportionally descending order, from the South African Indian, Coloured, and Black ethnic groups.
This figure has shown some increase in recent years. The coming of the English Records indicate that English people made initial contact with southern Africa prior to the period of formal British colonization of the area Silva From the 16th century onwards, for instance, English explorers and traders who visited the region began to introduce a vocabulary describing the land and its people.
More lasting experiences of the area are also on record during this early period Burman, In the late 17th century, a group of English sailors was wrecked on the Natal coast, and settled in the present region of the coastal city of Durban amongst the native inhabitants probably Zuluby whom they were amicably received.
The sailors learned the language and customs of the local people, and explored and traded extensively over a relatively large area. While some were rescued after a few years of what appears to have been an adventurous but comfortable life, a few remained behind, forming what could possibly be regarded - a hundred years before the formal commencement of British colonization - as the first permanent settlement of English-speakers in southern Africa.
Xhosa oral lore also tells of English-speaking castaways including a civilian woman by the name of Bessie who were absorbed into a particular clan, apparently in the late 18th century. Besides these early encounters, three initial historical phases in the formal establishment of English-speakers in South Africa may be discerned Lanham, These settlers were mostly from southern England, and primarily of working class or lower middle class backgrounds.
This group also appears to have maintained stronger ties with Britain than did the settlers Branford In terms of variety of English, the most affluent class in this context was associated with an externally focused British standard - Received Pronunciation.
The variety of English which had developed in Natal, however, emerged as the basis of a local norm for the aspirant middle class, while Eastern Cape English assumed a low status, and became associated with working class speech. Language status English was declared the sole official language of the Cape Colony in replacing Dutchand the stated language policy of the government of the time was one of Anglicization of the region.
On the formation of the Union of South Africa inwhich united the former Boer republics of the Transvaal and Orange Free State with the Cape and Natal colonies, English was made the official language together with Dutch which was replaced by Afrikaans in During the height of the era of Afrikaner nationalism and apartheid, as well as after the establishment of the Republic of South Africa inthis policy continued, the African languages being accorded no official status.
The influence of English Presently, English is established throughout South African society, amongst individuals from a variety of linguistic and ethnic backgrounds although less so in the rural than the urban areas, and amongst the working class.
Especially amongst the educated, English functions as a lingua franca, and is a primary language of government, business, and commerce. Educationally, it is a compulsory subject in all schools, and is the preferred medium of instruction in most schools and tertiary institutions the only other medium of instruction at advanced levels at present being Afrikaans.
In terms of societal influence it is clear that English has spread far beyond the domain of those of British origin Mesthrie Amongst the African majority, English has typically been seen as the language of liberation and black unity as opposed to Afrikaans, which has been perceived as the language of the oppressor.
Very few Africans, however, presently reveal complete language shift to English away from African languages. While English functions as the language of prestige and power, an African language is typically maintained as a solidarity code.
The initial spread of English amongst Africans took place during the colonial era, through mission education which enabled a high standard of English amongst a privileged minority.Prior to South Africa’s first democratic elections in , South Africa’s policy framework was highly fragmented under the apartheid era, “historical fragmentation of the education system into nineteen education departments based .
This powerful essay about a painful childhood memory got a student into 14 colleges including Harvard, Stanford, and Princeton. South Africa encircles the independent kingdoms of Swaziland and Lesotho.
Languages The 11 official languages are Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, Swazi, Tswana, Tonga, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu. S Woolman & B Fleisch The Constitution in the Classroom: Law & Education in South Africa, - ().
This monograph looks at six discrete subjects - school choice, school fees, the right to an adequate education, single medium public schools, school governing bodies, and independent schools - and attempts to show how a multidisciplinary approach to the subject matter takes us beyond.
South Africa’s education Education in South Africa: A system in crisis. The findings are included in a summary of several education-related research papers produced by education experts.
There are multiple rounds to the YES application and selection process.
All applicants are required to take an English proficiency exam, write a proctored essay, complete a YES program application, and participate in group and individual in-person interviews.