The intersection of these two dimensions ultimately leads individuals towards exhibiting different styles of conflict resolution. Avoidance conflict style Characterized by joking, changing or avoiding the topic, or even denying that a problem exists, the conflict avoidance style is used when an individual has withdrawn in dealing with the other party, when one is uncomfortable with conflict, or due to cultural contexts. This passive pro-social approach emerges when individuals derive personal satisfaction from meeting the needs of others and have a general concern for maintaining stable, positive social relationships.
Generally speaking, an argument's potential is determined within the first 3 minutes of exchange, setting the tone for the early stage.
It is in this stage where cross-complaining becomes present — countering one's complaint with another complaint — a negative environment is immediately set and hostility is likely to be mirrored. Exiting the early stage and entering the middle stage, we can see the kitchen-sinking concept come into, "Once a negative climate has been set, it is stoked by other unconstructive communication.
People often engage in kitchen-sinking, in which everything except the kitchen sink is thrown into the argument" Wood Constant interruptions, underdeveloped thoughts and the continuation of cross-complaining is apparent, leaving no time, breath or desire to form resolutions.
Eventually, the conflict floats into the later stage. By this stage participants are exhausted from arguing and individual prosperity is emphasized over mutual solution; counterproposals are exchanged.
As you can see, unproductive conflict communication truly is ineffective and puts relationships in jeopardy.
Constructive conflict communication[ edit ] Similar to the unproductive conflict communication Conflict resolution research, the constructive conflict communication cycle can be divided into the same 3 parts — early stage, middle stage and later stage.
To establish a positive early stage, it is crucial to acknowledge and confirm one another's concerns. Critical listening, open-mindedness and respect create a supportive climate. Once the solid groundwork is set, participants can shift into the middle stage and begin agenda building, that is, clarifying the concerns while staying on topic; interruptions are kept at a minimum and recognition is reinforced.
Last but not least, solutions will be proposed as the conflict enters the later stage, where respect shall be maintained, ideas are exchanged, and resolutions are formed.
Contrary to a negative climate, this form of communication seeks to create a positive, more tolerable environment. Negotiation research[ edit ] Negotiationthe most heavily researched approach to conflict resolution, has mainly been studied in laboratory experiments, in which undergraduate participants are randomly assigned to conditions.
These studies have mostly looked at antecedents of the strategies adopted by negotiators and the outcomes attained, including whether agreement is reached, the joint benefit to both parties, and the individual benefit to each party.
Problem solving behaviorsuch as giving or requesting information about a party's priorities among the issues, encourages high joint benefit. Contentious behaviorsuch as making threats or standing firm on one's proposals, encourages failure to reach agreement or, if agreement is reached, low joint benefit.
Conceding makes agreement more likely but favors the other party's interests. Three states of mind discourage concession making: Negotiators from individualistic cultures tend to take a more contentious approach, while those from collectivistic cultures are more concerned about maintaining positive relationships and hence more likely to cooperate concede or engage in problem solving.
Accountability to constituents encourages contentious behavior for individualists, it encourages cooperative behavior for collectivists. Research tells us that people with a high need for closure for rapid decision making tend to think and act in accustomed ways.
It follows that high need for closure should accentuate contentious behavior in individualistic societies and cooperative behavior in collectivistic societies, an hypothesis that has received support. Research into third party involvement[ edit ] Third parties often become involved in conflict resolution, either being called in by the disputants or acting on their own because the conflict annoys them or the community they serve.
Two common forms of third-party intervention are arbitration and mediation. In arbitration, the third party listens to both sides and then renders a decision, which can be either binding or advisory. Most mediation consists of third-party assistance with negotiation. When conflict is severe and the disputants have difficulty talking calmly with each other, mediators can put them into contact and help them develop a cease-fire or settlement.
If the disputants cannot or will not meet each other, mediators commonly become intermediaries and shuttle between them. Sometimes a chain of two intermediaries is necessary because there is no single individual who can communicate effectively with both sides.
Mediation research findings[ edit ] Mediation has been studied in both the laboratory and the field.Conflict Resolution Research Paper This sample Conflict Resolution Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Like other free research paper examples, it is .
Why Education Research? Before we launch into illustrating the qualities of evidence-based education research on conflict resolution, let's discuss for a moment the importance of using research.
Conflict Resolution: Research Under the Influence Thursday, February 1, In an ideal world, medical advances would result from an altruistic pairing of outstanding translational science with well-designed and efficient clinical trials, and the resulting conclusions could be applied for the betterment of global health – all in a not-for.
3Institute of Research of Ideological and Political Theory, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Interpersonal conflict resolution is a permanent solution to the problem or dis- The Research of Interpersonal Conflict and Solution Strategies.
resolution or conflict management designs, conflicts related to the development and implementation of online education programs, as well as conflicts between .
Conflict resolution is any reduction in the severity of a conflict. It may involve conflict management, in which the parties continue the conflict but adopt less extreme tactics; settlement, in which they reach agreement on enough issues that the conflict stops; or removal of the underlying causes of the conflict.