Communal societies have existed long before the Industrial Revolution, while Marxism was only created during the mid-nineteenth century after the publication of The Communist Manifesto. Marxist theory also predicts that the proletariat will eventually seize control of the means of production.
At the beginning of the s, a little over a century ago, China was a land of great economic potential — something recognised by Western imperialist nations, who sought to dismantle and exploit China for their own interests.
It would take a revolution to achieve this. And the Chinese Revolution — much like the broader history of China — was long, complicated, tumultuous and marked by great human suffering.
As with the other great revolutions of history, the Chinese Revolution started with reformers but ended with power in the hands of radicals.
The seeds of revolution can be found in the mids when China was governed by the Qinga hereditary dynasty whose members claimed a divine-right to rule.
The great size and diversity of Chinahowever, greatly limited the political authority of Qing emperors. While the Qing claimed dominion over all China, much of the nation was a patchwork of sectarian, tribal, regional and religious interests.
The spread of Christianity and the production and sale of opium, an addictive narcotic, aided the expansion of Western influence in China.
Qing emperors and officials were too weak to resist these incursions, so the nation was at risk of segmenting into foreign-controlled colonies. An enlightened and liberalised Qing government, these reformers argued, could better represent the needs of the Chinese people; a modernised Chinese army could support the government and resist foreign aggression and imperialism.
But like all doomed monarchies, the Qing regime was unable to recognise these dangers or embrace the changes necessary to ensure their own survival.
The figurehead of Qing conservatism was an old woman, the Dowager Empress Cixi. Once a concubine to the Xianfeng Emperor, Cixi held an honorary title and no political office — but by the late 19th century her power over the government was very real.
Stern and imposing, politically cunning and manipulative, Cixi dominated China for more than four decades. She achieved this with the support of the conservative Qing establishment: Despite internal pressures and demands for reform, this reactionary alliance held firm until the turn of the 20th century.
In China was paralysed by a rebellion in Shandong that threatened to sweep north and swamp the capital, Beijing. The shadowy militia behind this rebellion were dubbed the Boxers, a movement fortified by superstition.
The Boxer uprising challenged the authority of the government and forced the Qing leaders to take sides. The Boxers were eventually defeated by an eight-nation military expedition and Beijing was occupied and subjugated by foreign troops.
The Boxer Rebellion and the humiliating treaty that followed it further undermined and weakened the Qing regime. When Cixi died inthe Qing dynasty itself seemed to be drawing its last breath.
In exile abroad, nationalists like Sun Yixian Wade-Giles: Sun Yat-sen formed groups like the Tongmenghui to plot the overthrow of the Qing and create a new republican China. The last years of Qing rule saw many abortive or failed uprisings; the revolution was finally kick-started in Octoberwhen radicals in a modernised army in Wuchang mutinied.
Yuan Shikai did indeed secure the abdication of the Qing — but thought himself an emperor-in-waiting, not a republican statesman. By the time Yuan died inChina had disintegrated into a jigsaw of provinces and fiefdoms, each ruled by powerful warlords and their factions.
Sun Yixian withdrew to southern China, where he devoted the final decade of his life to reunifying the nation and restoring republican government. To achieve this Sun formed his own political party, the Guomindang ; forced an alliance with communists in the Soviet Union, and organised a military academy and a nationalist army.
For the next decade Jiang, the self-styled generalissimo, forged his paternalistic vision for a new republican China — while trying in vain to eradicate the CCP.The last phase of the Chinese Revolution was the Communist revolution, which began with the resumption of the civil war, temporarily interrupted by the Sino-Japanese War of to , and culminated with Communist Party rule being established throughout China in The Chinese Communist Revolution started from , after the end of Second Sino-Japanese War, and was the second part of the Chinese Civil War.
It was the culmination of the Chinese Communist Party's drive to power after its founding in In the Chinese media, this period is known as the War of Liberation.
On the surface it was a campaign to purify the revolution and its goals; in reality it was a campaign to restore and reinvigorate Mao’s authority by harnessing the enthusiasm of young communist Red Guards. The Cultural Revolution cemented Mao into power; he became the centre of an intense personality cult rivalling that of Soviet dictator Joseph .
If the Communist Revolution was meant for all nations, and all proletariat to be free, then the Chinese revolution was only a small part in an unfinished and ongoing revolution.
China today is becoming decreasingly Communist, and increasingly Capitalist. The Chinese Revolution of On October 1, , Chinese Communist leader Mao Zedong declared the creation of the People’s Republic of China (PRC).
The announcement ended the costly full-scale civil war between the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the Nationalist Party, or Kuomintang (KMT), which broke out immediately .
The Chinese government opposes independence of Taiwan and China is remains communist as the Communist Party doesn’t want to lose control. Effects Analysis The origins of the revolution were rooted in Marxist beliefs.