InAdam Smith published The Wealth of Nations, probably the most influential book on market economics ever written. Born inAdam Smith was the son of a customs official in Kirkcaldy, Scotland. At 14, he entered the University of Glasgow. After graduating, he attended Oxford in England and studied philosophy.
Biography[ edit ] Early life and education[ edit ] Hume was the second of two sons born to Joseph Home of Ninewellsan advocate, and his wife The Hon.
Hume's father died when Hume was a child, just after his second birthday, and he was raised by his mother, who never remarried. Throughout his life Hume, who never married, spent time occasionally at his family home at Ninewells in Berwickshirewhich had belonged to his family since the sixteenth century.
His finances as a young man were very "slender". His family was not rich, and, as a younger son, he had little patrimony to live on. He was therefore forced to make a living somehow.
At first, because of his family, he considered a career in lawbut came to have, in his words, "an insurmountable aversion to everything but the pursuits of Philosophy and general Learning; and while [my family] fanceyed I was poring over Voet and VinniusCicero and Virgil were the Authors which I was secretly devouring".
Due to this inspiration, Hume set out to spend a minimum of 10 years reading and writing. He soon came to the verge of a mental breakdownsuffering from what a doctor diagnosed as the "Disease of the Learned".
Hume wrote that it started with a coldness, which he attributed to a "Laziness of Temper", that lasted about nine months. Later, some scurvy spots broke out on his fingers. This was what persuaded Hume's physician to make his diagnosis.
Hume wrote that he "went under a Course of Bitters and Anti-Hysteric Pills", taken along with a pint of claret every day.
Hume also decided to have a more active life to better continue his learning. After eating well for a time, he went from being "tall, lean and raw-bon'd" to being "sturdy, robust [and] healthful-like". Career[ edit ] At 25 years of age, Hume, although of noble ancestry, had no source of income and no learned profession.
As was common at his time, he became a merchant's assistant, but he had to leave his native Scotland. His tenure there, and the access to research materials it provided, ultimately resulted in Hume's writing the massive six-volume The History of Englandwhich became a bestseller and the standard history of England in its day.
Hume described his "love for literary fame" as his "ruling passion"  and judged his two late works, the so-called "first" and "second" enquiries, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding and An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Moralsrespectively, as his greatest literary and philosophical achievements,  asking his contemporaries to judge him on the merits of the later texts alone, rather than the more radical formulations of his early, youthful work, dismissing his philosophical debut as juvenilia: Hume was just 23 years old when he started this work and it is now regarded as one of the most important in the history of Western philosophy.
Although many scholars today consider the Treatise to be Hume's most important work and one of the most important books in Western philosophy, the critics in Great Britain at the time did not agree, describing it as "abstract and unintelligible". However, the position was given to William Cleghorn  after Edinburgh ministers petitioned the town council not to appoint Hume because he was seen as an atheist.
However, it was then that Hume started his great historical work The History of England. This took him fifteen years and ran to over a million words. During this time he was also involved with the Canongate Theatre through his friend John Homea preacher. Often called the First Enquiry, it proved little more successful than the Treatise, perhaps because of the publishing of his short autobiography, My Own Life, which "made friends difficult for the first Enquiry".
Hume's religious views were often suspect. It was necessary in the s for his friends to avert a trial against him on the charge of heresy. However, he "would not have come and could not be forced to attend if he said he was not a member of the Established Church".If you’ve heard of one economist, it’s likely to be Adam Smith.
He’s the best-known of all economists, and is typically hailed as the founding father of the dismal science itself.
Adam Smith, (baptized June 5, , Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland—died July 17, , Edinburgh), Scottish social philosopher and political economist. After two centuries, Adam Smith remains a towering figure in the history of economic thought.
In , Neapolitan philosopher Ferdinando Galiani published a nearly exhaustive treatise on money called Della Moneta, 25 years before Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations, and therefore is seen as possibly the first truly modern economic analysis.
Dec 11, · Adam Smith Philosopher Specialty Morality, political economy Born June 5, OS Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland Died July 17, (at age 67) Edinburgh, Scotland Nationality British Adam Smith was a very popular Scottish philosopher.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press. [Very clear discussion of Smith (as well as other 18th century thinkers) which sets their ideas in historical context.
Highly recommended.] Rothschild, E. and Sen, A. () 'Adam Smith’s Economics'. In Haakonssen, K. (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Adam Smith.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp . Capitalism in flames, populism and nationalism on the march across Europe, a US president bent on demolishing free trade, a British shadow chancellor calling openly for the overthrow of capitalism.